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Development of Outer Ring Areas (III): Well Build Infrastructures and Public Service Facilities

 

New residential areas and industrial clusters have sprung up, and it is a new program during the development of outer ring areas to improve the infrastructures and public service and accelerate the construction of a livable city. The newly added 5 million urban residents and the 500km zone will breed huge demands. For example, urban road will increase by 20 million m2 approximately based on the density of 4m2/km2 or the per capita area of 4m2; the public parking lots will increase by 4-5 million m2 approximately based on the per capita area of 0.8-1m2; there will be 1500-1800 new public toilets based on the design of 3-5 public toilets/km2 in residential areas and 4-11 public toilets in the location of public facilities; there will be 1,000 new nurseries, 700 new kindergartens, 500 new primary schools and 250 new middle schools in accordance with the basis of one nursery for every 5,000 persons, one kindergarten for every 7,000 persons, one primary school for every 10,000 persons and one middle school for every 20,000 persons; there will be approximately 20 new comprehensive hospitals, 80 new cultural centers, 50 new cinemas and 15 new stadiums in accordance with the basis of one 800-bed comprehensive hospital for every 200,000 persons, one cultural center for every 40,000-60,000 persons, one cinema for every 100,000 persons and one stadium for every 300,000 persons; there will be approximately 20-50 new nursing homes, children welfare associations and funeral homes in accordance with the estimate that one nursing home, one children welfare association and one funeral home can serve 100,000-300,000 persons. Police substations, administrative offices for industry and commerce and taxation offices etc. are also required for the purpose of convenience.

1. Strengthen the functions of infrastructures. Infrastructures are the precondition for urban construction and the crucial element for a city’s survival and development. The infrastructures’ functions need continuous strengthening as the city is expanding continuously. For example, it only took 10 years of Shenzhen and Zhuhai to develop themselves from a remote town to a modernized metropolis, and this is mainly attributed to the large-scaled construction of infrastructures at the beginning of development. The infrastructure construction during the development of outer ring areas should be well coordinated with the time and the capacity. It can be built in accordance with the city’s development planning for a certain period and the overall requirements, or built at different stages in accordance with the final planning, or we can reserve spare space in accordance with the final planning; or else, it may hinder the sustainable development of the city. For example, the designed passenger flow of Beijing subway was 200,000 person-times/day in 1965, but the actual passenger flow presently is averagely 1.7 million person-times/day. Severe problems will occur if a city expands rapidly before necessary infrastructures are completed. Therefore, we should, in order to well develop the outer ring areas, satisfy the demands of urban sustainable development for infrastructures, make scientific plans and accelerate the construction of the effective and reliable modernized infrastructure system with sound functions and reasonable structure. We should also fully consider the rules on industrial layout, community distribution and movement of population to promote balanced and coordinated development of diversified urban infrastructures.

2. Improve the supporting public service. The public service facilities should be built at the same pace as the urban infrastructures. Only when public service facilities develop along with the urban infrastructures, can we obtain the best investment benefit. We should consider the urban development and human’s demands for development, provide supporting functional facilities for commercial and residential districts, fully consider the multi-level and diversified development of people, help people achieve overall development and create comfortable, beautiful, convenient and pleasant living environment so as to make Chongqing a livable center. In addition, we should also enhance the public service capacity of education, medical treatment, culture and physical training by different levels and with different focuses. Educational facilities: there are tens of colleges and universities, including Chongqing University and Southwest University, and more than 24 key middle schools within the Outer Ring Expressway; we should properly allocate various schools according to the actual development of the city. Cultural and physical training facilities: the large facility is the name card of a city and moreover the symbol of a city’s civilization; we should plan and build necessary large cultural and physical training facilities and perfect the facilities in each community during the expansion of the city so as to provide necessary sites for the masses’ relaxation, amusement and exercise. Social benefit facilities: we should attach high importance to the demands in an aged society. We should strengthen the construction of residential and commercial facilities, and the real estate in the new town in the west, Chayuan New Zone, airport in Yubei, Beibei Caijia etc. is developing vigorously. 90% of the land transferred from Jiulongpo in 2009 is concentrated in Xipeng, Zhongliangshan and Zouma. We should adapt to the industrialization and urbanization and build, when proper, the commercial facilities matched with the real estate development so as to facilitate the work and life in such densely-populated areas.

3. Avoid the “Second Ring Phenomenon”. According to the development of some cities in China, the second ring road always became a “wide gap” between the life within and out of the ring. For example, Shijiazhuang has ever been criticized a lot since the second ring road here was just like a geographical “boundary”: the conditions within the ring changed rapidly and there were complete public facilities; however, there were poor infrastructures out of the ring, such as transportation facilities, water supply facilities and drainage facilities, and the medical and educational facilities were inadequate, which made the development here lag behind that within the ring. This is the “Second Ring Phenomenon”. We should not only emphasize the construction within the Outer Ring Expressway, but also attach great importance to the planning and construction of associated regions during the development of the outer ring areas so as to support and ensure the urbanization.
   

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